7.4(A), (B) show the stepped nozzle used for cutting steel plates; Fig. Oxyacetylene welding/cutting is not difficult, but there are a good number of subtle safety points that should be learned such as: The torch's trigger blows extra oxygen at higher pressures down the torch's third tube out of the central jet into the workpiece, causing the metal to burn and blowing the resulting molten oxide through to the other side. Almost every piece of metal is an alloy of one type or another. The advantages when cutting large sections are obvious: an oxy-fuel torch is light, small and quiet and needs very little effort to use, whereas a cut-off grinder is heavy and noisy and needs considerable operator exertion and may vibrate severely, leading to stiff hands and possible long-term vibration white finger. In the high pressure pipe, fuel gas and heating oxygen are mixed in the head. in stone working for "flaming" where the stone is heated and a top layer crackles and breaks. The adjustable second stage of the regulator controls the pressure reduction from the intermediate pressure to the low outlet pressure. Acetylene is the primary fuel for oxy-fuel welding and is the fuel of choice for repair work and general cutting and welding. The trigger or lever controlling the cutting oxygen jet is then pressed, and the cutting begins. A cutting torch has a 60- or 90-degree angled head with orifices placed around a central jet. Special safety eyewear must be used—both to protect the welder and to provide a clear view through the yellow-orange flare given off by the incandescing flux. In the automotive body collision industry before the 1980s, oxyacetylene gas torch welding was seldom used to weld sheetmetal, since warpage was a byproduct besides the excess heat. The copper coating prevents tapering of the cut.  Pure oxygen, instead of air, is used to increase the flame temperature to allow localized melting of the workpiece material (e.g.  Not unlike common influenza, fevers, chills, nausea, cough, and fatigue are common effects of high zinc oxide exposure. Cut-off grinders are useless for these kinds of application. Copper, aluminium, and other base metals are occasionally alloyed with beryllium, which is a highly toxic metal. US practice is to fit both at the regulator. Cutting is started from a spot the molten metal can flow away easily. Between the regulator and hose, and ideally between hose and torch on both oxygen and fuel lines, a flashback arrestor and/or non-return valve (check valve) should be installed to prevent flame or oxygen-fuel mixture being pushed back into either cylinder and damaging the equipment or causing a cylinder to explode. Zinc, cadmium, and fluorides are often used to protect irons and steels from oxidizing. The cheaper single-stage regulators may sometimes omit the cylinder contents gauge, or replace the accurate dial gauge with a cheaper and less precise "rising button" gauge. Simple machines are required for easier types of cuts— straight line, circles, levels, etc. Other gases that may be used are propylene, liquified petroleum gas (LPG), propane, natural gas, hydrogen, and MAPP gas. Accurate flow control with a needle valve relies on a constant inlet pressure. At a temperature of 900°C, Iron and Steel easily combine with the oxygen to form oxides and burn rapidly away the cutting zone. The first stage is a fixed-pressure regulator, which releases gas from the cylinder at a constant intermediate pressure, despite the pressure in the cylinder falling as the gas in it is consumed. The heating flame is similar to that used in the hand cutter. Usually, more metal is added to the puddle as it is moved along by dipping metal from a welding rod or filler rod into the molten metal puddle. The amount of heat applied to the metal is a function of the welding tip size, the speed of travel, and the welding position. Many brands use different kinds of gases in their mixes. 7.5). Cutting may be done in different metals by different methods: Cutting machines are used to ensure accuracy of the cut edge. More common are the anti-rust coatings on many manufactured metal components. It can be used at a higher pressure than acetylene and is therefore useful for underwater welding and cutting. in jewelry production for "water welding" using a water torch (an oxyhydrogen torch whose gas supply is generated immediately by electrolysis of water). Hydrogen has a clean flame and is good for use on aluminium. These are used for their increased cutting power over gaseous fuel systems and also greater portability compared to systems requiring two high pressure tanks. Other than acetylene, there are many proprietary gases. When using oxy-acetylene a special torch or cutting blowpipe is necessary. This is accomplished through torch manipulation by the welder. The welder can adjust the oxy-acetylene flame to be carbonizing (aka reducing), neutral, or oxidizing. The flashback arrestor prevents shock waves from downstream coming back up the hoses and entering the cylinder, possibly rupturing it, as there are quantities of fuel/oxygen mixtures inside parts of the equipment (specifically within the mixer and blowpipe/nozzle) that may explode if the equipment is incorrectly shut down, and acetylene decomposes at excessive pressures or temperatures. It is also shipped as a liquid in Dewar type vessels (like a large Thermos jar) to places that use large amounts of oxygen. Prohibited Content 3. The tip manufacturer's equipment data should be reviewed for the proper cutting oxygen pressures for the specific cutting tip. Proper ventilation when welding will help to avoid large chemical exposure. The regulator has two pressure gauges, one indicating cylinder pressure, the other indicating hose pressure. Oxygen is not the fuel.
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